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Spotlight Cases Only
JANUARY 2015New
Haste Makes Care Unsafe
with commentary by John H. Eichhorn, MD
While undergoing an elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and ablation, an elderly man had a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) placed to monitor his hemodynamic status. During the operation, the team was informed that another patient needed an emergency CABG. In the rush to attend to the second patient, the PAC in the first was left inflated for a prolonged period, which could have led to a catastrophic complication.
JANUARY 2015New
Bowel Injury After Laparoscopic Surgery
with commentary by Krishna Moorthy, MD, MS
Following outpatient laparoscopic surgery to repair an inguinal hernia, a man with no significant past medical history had high levels of pain at the surgical site and was admitted to the hospital. With sustained pain on postoperative day 3, the patient developed tachycardia with abdominal distension and a low-grade fever. A CT scan revealed a bowel perforation, which required surgery and a lengthy ICU stay due to septicemia.
JANUARY 2015NewSpotlight Case
Monitoring Fetal Health
with commentary by Mark W. Scerbo, PhD, and Alfred Z. Abuhamad, MD
A woman who had an uncomplicated pregnancy and normal labor with no apparent signs of distress delivered a cyanotic, flaccid infant requiring extensive resuscitation. Although fetal heart rate tracings had shown signs of moderate-to-severe fetal distress for 90 minutes prior to delivery, clinicians did not notice the abnormalities on the remote centralized monitor, which displayed 16 windows, each for a different patient.
DECEMBER 2014
Medical Devices in the "Wild"
with commentary by Ayse P. Gurses, PhD, and Peter Doyle, PhD
An elderly man was being prepared for discharge after being hospitalized for an exacerbation of congestive heart failure. His nurse failed to notice that the tubing of the patient's sequential compression devices (in place to prevent DVT) was caught on the bed wheel and had unlocked the bed when she raised it. When the patient attempted to get up later, the bed rolled out from under him and he fell, breaking his hip. One week after surgery, the patient experienced a cardiac arrest from a massive pulmonary embolism and died.
DECEMBER 2014
Ebola: Are We Ready?
with commentary by Jeffrey H. Barsuk, MD, MS, and Cynthia Barnard, MBA, MSJS
In a simulation exercise conducted in an institution that felt it was prepared for patients with actual or suspected Ebola, a man presented to the emergency department with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and fever. He had recently returned to the US from Sierra Leone. The nurse initiated an isolation protocol and the critical care team all donned personal protective equipment. During transport, confusion about which elevators to use potentially exposed 30 staff members to Ebola. Additional issues occurred including breaching sterile technique while inserting a central line and confusion about the process to transport the patient's blood to the lab.
DECEMBER 2014Spotlight Case
A Stroke of Error
with commentary by Kevin M. Barrett, MD, MSc
An elderly man admitted for a presumed hypertensive emergency and undiagnosed neurologic symptoms became unresponsive and was noted to have new right hand weakness 2 days into his hospitalization. After a "Code Stroke" was called, a neurologist evaluated him and administered tPA 100 minutes after the acute event. A few hours later, the patient developed further symptoms, and an emergent head CT demonstrated post-tPA intracerebral hemorrhage.
SEPTEMBER 2014
No BP During NIBP
with commentary by Matthias Görges, PhD, and J. Mark Ansermino, MBBCh, MSc
A man with atrial fibrillation underwent ablation in the catheterization laboratory under general endotracheal anesthesia. The patient was extremely stable during the 7-hour procedure with vital signs hardly changing over time. Inadvertently, the noninvasive blood pressure measurement stopped recording for 1 hour but went unnoticed. After the error was discovered, the case continued without any problems and the patient was discharged home the next day as planned.
SEPTEMBER 2014
Too Much, Too Fast
with commentary by Delphine Tuot, MDCM, MAS
A patient with ALS was hospitalized with presumed pneumonia and sepsis. Although he was treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and fluid resuscitation, additional potassium was administered due to his potassium level remaining low. The patient went into cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts were unsuccessful.
SEPTEMBER 2014Spotlight Case
A Lot of Pain (Medications)
with commentary by Shoshana J. Herzig, MD, MPH
Hospitalized for foot amputation, a man with COPD and chronic pain on long-acting morphine experienced post-operative pain and severe muscle spasms. After being given hydromorphone, morphine, and diazepam, the patient became minimally responsive and a code blue was called.
JULY/AUGUST 2014
Benefits vs. Risks of Intraosseous Vascular Access
with commentary by Raymond L. Fowler, MD, and Melanie J. Lippmann, MD
During a code blue, an intraosseous line was placed in the left tibia of an elderly woman after several unsuccessful attempts to obtain peripheral venous access. Following chest compressions and advanced cardiovascular life support protocol, spontaneous circulation returned and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. A few hours later, the left leg was dusky purple with sluggish distal pulses.
JULY/AUGUST 2014
Liver Biopsy: Proceed With Caution
with commentary by Don C. Rockey, MD
Presenting with jaundice and epigastric pain, a woman with a history of multiple malignancies was admitted directly for an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. After the procedure, the patient had low blood pressure and complained of new abdominal pain, which worsened over the next 2 hours. The bedside nurse soon found the patient unresponsive.
JULY/AUGUST 2014Spotlight Case
Pitfalls in Diagnosing Necrotizing Fasciitis
with commentary by Terence Goh, MBBS, and Lee Gan Goh, MBBS
Admitted with bruising from a fall and persistent pain on his left side, a patient was kept in the emergency department overnight due to crowding. After being reevaluated by the surgical service the next day, the patient was urgently taken to the operating room for probable necrotizing fasciitis and pyomysitis.
JUNE 2014
CVC Removal: A Procedure Like Any Other
with commentary by Michelle Feil, MSN, RN
Following removal of a central venous catheter placed during his admission for a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics, a young man with a history of Behçet disease was discharged from the hospital. Shortly thereafter, he presented to the emergency department with acute onset shortness of breath and a "whistling sound" coming from his neck. Diagnosed with air embolism, he was admitted to the ICU.
JUNE 2014
May I Have Another?—Medication Error
with commentary by Michael Wolf, PhD, MPH
A man admitted to the hospital for his first seizure was found to have been taking up to 10 tablets of 10 mg zolpidem per night (an unsafe dose) to fall asleep and had recently run out. The instructions on the medication label had stated: "If ineffective, take another."
JUNE 2014Spotlight Case
Wandering Off the Floors: Safety and Security Risks of Patient Wandering
with commentary by Thomas A. Smith, CHPA, CPP
Hospitalized for alcohol withdrawal, an elderly man was feeling "cooped up" by hospital day 6 and left the floor without informing any providers. An hour later upon return to his room, he complained of new arm pain. While off hospital grounds, the patient had fallen and broken his arm.
MAY 2014
Discontinued Medications: Are They Really Discontinued?
with commentary by Celina Garza Mankey, MD, and Prathibha Varkey, MD, MPH, MBA
An elderly man on warfarin and aspirin for chronic atrial fibrillation and previous cerebrovascular accident presented to the emergency department with a severe headache. Found to have bilateral subdural hematomas and a supratherapeutic INR (4.9), he was admitted to the ICU. Even though the patient was discharged with his warfarin discontinued permanently, the outpatient pharmacy kept it on the active medication list and refilled his mail order prescription automatically, leading again to an elevated INR.
MAY 2014
Raise the Bar
with commentary by James Stotts, RN, MS, CNS, and Audrey Lyndon, PhD, RNC
In the preoperative area, a man scheduled for excision of a groin lipoma received regional anesthesia (right iliac block) and was taken to the operating room. There, without alerting anyone, the patient attempted to rise to use the restroom, but—because his leg was numb—fell and hit his head. He reported acute neck pain and was transferred to the local emergency department.
MAY 2014Spotlight Case
Medication Reconciliation With a Twist (or Dare We Say, a Patch?)
with commentary by Janice L. Kwan, MD
An elderly woman with a history of dementia underwent surgical resection of new colon cancer, which relieved a bowel obstruction. She developed acute delirium postoperatively, and the team discovered they had neglected to capture her cholinesterase inhibitor patch (a medication for dementia) in the official medication reconciliation list.
APRIL 2014
CYP450 Drugs: Expect the Unexpected
with commentary by Charles John Gonzalez, MD
Scheduled for a hip replacement, a man with AIDS presented with sciatica. The spine surgeon administered a corticosteroid injection to control his symptoms. Soon after the patient experienced sweats, abdominal pain, weight gain, elevated blood pressure, insomnia, and anxiety. He was diagnosed with Cushing syndrome due to an adverse interaction between the HIV medication and the corticosteroid.
APRIL 2014
Clostridium Difficile Relapse Secondary to Medication Access Issue
with commentary by Paul C. Walker, PharmD, and Jerod Nagel, PharmD
Following a hospitalization for Clostridium Difficile–associated diarrhea, a woman with HIV/AIDS and B-cell lymphoma was discharged with a prescription for a 14-day course of oral vancomycin solution. At her regular retail pharmacy, she was unable to obtain the medicine, and while awaiting coverage approval, she received no treatment. Her symptoms soon returned, prompting an emergency department visit where she was diagnosed with toxic megacolon.
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